R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R. For more information or to download R please visit the R website.

There are currently two R packages based on lp_solve. The *lpSolve* package provides high-level functions for solving general linear/integer problems, assignment problems and transportation problems. The *lpSolveAPI* package provides a complete implementation of the lp_solve API. The *lpSolveAPI* package has a lot more functionality than *lpSolve*, however, it also has a slightly more difficult learning curve. Both packages are available from CRAN.

Caveat (19.04.2011): the *lpSolve* package is based on lp_solve version 5.5.0.7 which was released on 27.12.2007. The current version of lp_solve (used in the *lpSolveAPI* package) is 5.5.2.0 and was released on 22.08.2010.

You can find the **project summary page** **here**.

To install the *lpSolve* package use the command:

> install.packages("lpSolve")and to install the

> install.packages("lpSolveAPI")After the packages have been downloaded and installed, you can load them into your R session using the

> library(lpSolveAPI)This needs to be done once in each R session (i.e., every time you launch R).

The `>` shown before each R command is the R prompt. Only the text after `>` should be entered.

Documentation for the *lpSolve* and *lpSolveAPI* packages is provided using R's built-in help system. For example, the command

> ?make.lpwill display the documentation for the

> ls("package:lpSolveAPI")The documentation for each of these functions can be accessed using the

The lpSolveAPI package provides an API for building and solving linear programs that mimics the lp_solve C API. This approach allows greater flexibility but also has a few caveats. The most important is that the *lpSolve linear program model objects* created by `make.lp` and `read.lp` are not actually R objects. Rather, they are pointers to lp_solve 'lprec' structures which are created and store externally. R does not know how to deal with these structures. In particular, R cannot duplicate them. You should never assign an lpSolve linear program model object in R code.

Consider the following example. First we create an empty model x.

> x <- make.lp(2, 2)Then we assign x to y.

> y <- xNext we set some columns in x.

> set.column(x, 1, c(1, 2)) > set.column(x, 2, c(3, 4))And finally, take a look at y.

> y Model name: C1 C2 Minimize 0 0 R1 1 3 free 0 R2 2 4 free 0 Type Real Real upbo Inf Inf lowbo 0 0The changes we made in x appear in y as well. Although x and y are two distinct objects in R, they both refer to the

The safest way to use the lpSolve API is inside an R function - do not return the lpSolve linear program model object.

> lprec <- make.lp(0, 4) > set.objfn(lprec, c(1, 3, 6.24, 0.1)) > add.constraint(lprec, c(0, 78.26, 0, 2.9), ">=", 92.3) > add.constraint(lprec, c(0.24, 0, 11.31, 0), "<=", 14.8) > add.constraint(lprec, c(12.68, 0, 0.08, 0.9), ">=", 4) > set.bounds(lprec, lower = c(28.6, 18), columns = c(1, 4)) > set.bounds(lprec, upper = 48.98, columns = 4) > RowNames <- c("THISROW", "THATROW", "LASTROW") > ColNames <- c("COLONE", "COLTWO", "COLTHREE", "COLFOUR") > dimnames(lprec) <- list(RowNames, ColNames)Lets take a look at what we have done so far.

> lprec # or equivalently print(lprec) Model name: COLONE COLTWO COLTHREE COLFOUR Minimize 1 3 6.24 0.1 THISROW 0 78.26 0 2.9 >= 92.3 THATROW 0.24 0 11.31 0 <= 14.8 LASTROW 12.68 0 0.08 0.9 >= 4 Type Real Real Real Real Upper Inf Inf Inf 48.98 Lower 28.6 0 0 18Now lets solve the model.

> solve(lprec) [1] 0 > get.objective(lprec) [1] 31.78276 > get.variables(lprec) [1] 28.60000 0.00000 0.00000 31.82759 > get.constraints(lprec) [1] 92.3000 6.8640 391.2928